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Incineration A Waste Management Strategy

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat.The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas.The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere.In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.The process of incarnation takes place in incinerators.An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste.Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning.The following are types of incinerators: • rotary kiln • fluidized bed • liquid injection • multiple hearth • catalytic combustion • waste gas flare • direct flame of these, rotary kiln is one of the most prevalent in industry because of its applicability to large scale use and its versatility.The rotary kiln incinerator is manufactured with a rotating combustion chamber that keeps waste moving, thereby allowing it to vaporize for easier burning.The rotary-kiln incinerator is used by municipalities and by large industrial plants.Rotary kiln characteristics are - • operating temperature from 1500-3000 ° f ( 800 - 1650 ° c ) • has greatest resistance to high temperatures • can handle liquid, sludge, solid and gases in very large quantities • medical, clinical or hospital waste like "red bag waste", infectious waste, surgical waste, injection needles, rubber gloves and tubing, tissues and bandage, drop-bags, medical remains, scalpels, infectious and pathological waste, blood plasma remains, cloths, laboratory waste, medicine remains, glass pipette, plastic samples, steel tools, etc • chemical waste and pesticides • can operate in batch mode and thus allowing more flexibility • can be mobile for onsite treatment sludge incineration is a process for generating thermal energy from sewage treatment plants.The process is in operation in germany where it treats 1.3m tones of sludge annually.The process has also been trialled in china, where it has been qualified as an environmental investment project.However the energy balance of the process is not high, as sludge needs drying before incinerating.There are concerns about sludge incineration because of air pollutants in the emissions along with the high cost of supplemental fuel, making this a less attractive and less commonly constructed means of sludge treatment and disposal.Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as japan where land is a scarce resource.Denmark and sweden have been leaders in using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century.In 2005, waste incineration produced 4.8 % of the electricity consumption and 13.7 % of the total domestic heat consumption in denmark.A number of other european countries rely heavily on incineration for handling municipal waste, in particular luxembourg, the netherlands, germany and france.Incineration has to be discussed in context of an integrated waste management strategy rather than a single option.Most importantly, the effective management of waste requires a long term strategy based on full understanding of the relative costs and benefits of different options.

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